What is soy protein?

Abstract: Soy protein is a kind of plant protein, and its amino acid composition is similar to milk protein. Except for slightly lower methionine, the content of other essential amino acids is relatively rich, and it is a complete plant protein. In terms of nutritional value, it can be equivalent to animal protein. In terms of genetic structure, it is also the closest to human amino acids, so it is the most nutritious plant protein. Soy protein has the incomparable advantages of animal protein. Although soy protein has very little methionine, it does not contain cholesterol. Its unique physiologically active substance-isoflavones has the effect of lowering cholesterol.

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Basic Information:

Soybean is one of the main crops in China, because it has the characteristics of both edible oil resources and edible protein resources, and has high nutritional value. Soybean protein is the most abundant protein in nature, and its amino acid composition and essential amino acids The composition is similar, and it is also rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron, oligosaccharides and various vitamins. It is known as the “growth of gold”. Industrialized soy protein products include soy protein powder (SF), soy protein concentrate (SPC), soy protein isolate (SPI) and textured soy protein (TSP).

FAO/WHO (1985) human test results show that the essential amino acid composition of soy protein is more suitable for human needs. For people over two years old, the physiological potency of soy protein is 100. Soybean is rich in protein, and its protein content is almost twice that of meat, eggs, and fish. Moreover, the protein contained in soybeans contains sufficient human body “essential amino acids” and complete components, which are “high-quality protein”. The human body’s demand for protein varies with age, gender, weight, type of work, etc. In order to guide people’s diet, countries around the world have formulated the “recommended daily dietary nutrient supply” (RDA) based on their own actual conditions. In 1999, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement: Daily intake of 25 grams of soy protein can reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Protein introduction:

Protein is the most important component in nature and the basic element that constitutes organic organisms. All life activities of all animals and plants are closely related to protein. At the same time, protein is the first nutrient required by the human body, accounting for 45% of the total dry matter of the human body and 70% of the total muscle. The main components of the cells, tissues and organs of the human body are proteins. The body’s metabolism, disease resistance, immunity, body fluid balance, and genetic information transmission are all closely related to protein. Without protein, there is no life, so protein is also called the “first nutrient” or “vital element” of human beings.

Product Category:

There are two types of soy protein products: powdered soy protein products and structured soy protein products.

Powdered soy protein products are products rich in soy protein obtained by defatting, removing or partially removing carbohydrates as raw materials. Depending on the protein content, they are divided into three types: 1) Soy protein powder, with a protein content of 50-65% (On a dry basis); 2) Soy protein concentrate, with a protein content of 65-90% (on a dry basis). The product with the functions of emulsification and gelation, etc., obtained by physical modification of the soy protein concentrate as the raw material is called functional Soy protein concentrate; 3) Soy protein isolate, with a protein content of more than 90% (on a dry basis).

Tissued soy protein is a product made from powdered soy protein products that has a meat-like tissue structure through extrusion and cooking technology. Depending on the protein content, it can be divided into two types: 1) Textured soy protein powder, with a protein content of 50 -65% (on a dry basis); 2) Organized soy protein concentrate, with a protein content of about 70% (on a dry basis).