What are the functions of soy protein isolate in food?
Abstract: This article mainly introduces the special applications of soy protein isolate in various food processing. These food industries are dairy products, meat products, fish products, baked foods, protein beverages, canned foods, and other food processing.
Keywords: soy protein isolate, food processing, effect
As a modern food material, soy protein isolate not only contains rich and balanced amino acids, but also has unique functionality, and is widely used in various fields of food processing. Soy protein isolate is also known as isoelectric point protein. It is a refined vegetable protein product obtained from low-temperature desolubilized soybean or soybean meal through alkaline soluble acid precipitation and other processes. Its protein content is as high as 90% and can be digested and used. The rate can reach 93%-97%. There are nearly 20 types of amino acids, and they contain essential amino acids for the human body. They are rich in nutrients, contain no cholesterol, and basically contain no carbohydrates. Soy protein isolate has a significant effect on lowering blood lipids and cholesterol. Soy protein isolate not only contains rich and balanced amino acids, but also has good functional properties, such as foaming, emulsifying and gelling properties, so it can significantly improve the taste of food, increase food elasticity, oil retention and water retention, To improve the storage performance of food, it has been widely used in the food industry such as meat products, dairy products, beverages and bakery products.
1. The role in the processing of dairy products:
Soy protein isolate can be used in the production of dairy products, such as formula milk powder and liquid milk. It can improve the combination of protein content and milk nutrition and flavor, and form complementary advantages in amino acid content, ratio and flavor. Soy protein isolate has dispersibility, solubility, stability and emulsification. The protein content is more than 90%, and it does not contain lactose. It can avoid lactose uncomfortable reaction. It does not contain cholesterol. It is low calorie, high nutrition, Safe and convenient auxiliary materials for dairy products processing. Soy protein isolate is used to replace milk powder, non-dairy beverages and various forms of milk products. It has comprehensive nutrition and does not contain cholesterol. It is a food substitute for milk. Soy protein isolate is used in the production of ice cream instead of skimmed milk powder, which can improve the emulsification properties of ice cream, delay the crystallization of lactose, and prevent the phenomenon of “sanding”. Researchers use soybean protein isolate to make soy protein ice cream. The protein can be evenly distributed in the entire system, increasing the protein content and improving its nutritional value. The ice cream has a complete texture, no beany, no roughness, and puffing rate. Good, and without any synthetic additives, suitable for people of all ages. Use soybean protein isolate as a raw material to develop functional beverages and strengthen essential nutrients. They can be presented to consumer groups in full-fat or defatted form, with original flavor or added flavor, and different textures. The process can be directly processed using existing dairy product processing equipment.
2. The role in meat products:
Soy protein isolate is used as a functional additive or non-functional filler in the processing of meat products. It can improve the quality of meat, retain water and fat, prevent segregation of gravy, increase elasticity, and improve taste. The soy protein isolate product obtained through modification with both gelling and solubility is used to replace imported protein, which is used as a special protein isolate for meat product injection in the production of meat products, which can increase the yield of meat products and reduce the production cost of meat products. . Adding 2% soy protein isolate to sausages can increase the weight by 10%, and the taste and flavor are improved to varying degrees. Adding soy protein isolate to higher-grade meat products not only improves the texture and flavor of meat products, but also increases the protein content and strengthens vitamins.
3. The role in fish products:
Japan and other countries use protein isolates in fish products to increase product supply. In addition, they also produce powder and granular products. The main products are defatted soybean powder, low-temperature soybean powder, full-fat soybean powder, and lecithin-added soybeans. Powder, protein concentrate, protein isolate, fibrin, conformation protein, etc.
4. The role in baked goods and pasta foods
Soy protein isolate is used in baked foods and pasta foods to increase the strength of gluten, improve the water absorption of the dough during processing, and improve the flavor and nutritional content of the product. In addition, soy protein isolate can increase bread nutrition, increase water absorption, increase biscuit crispness, improve bread crust color, prevent bread aging, extend shelf life, improve cake foaming, water absorption, and make cake texture swell Loose, fine honeycomb, good color and taste, not easy to dry and hard, anti-aging.
5. The role in protein drinks
Used in beverages to increase the protein content of beverages. At present, there are more than 12,000 varieties of soybean protein added to food and beverages in the United States. American consumers have gradually accepted soybeans, and more and more Americans like the flavor and taste of soybean beverages. In addition, the use of soy protein to produce protein beverages such as soy protein milk, coffee bean milk, soy cheese, fruit juice soy milk, etc., not only has high nutritional value, but also has good quality and sweet taste.
6. The role in canned food
Soy protein, also known as vegetarian meat, is a high-protein nutritious food. It can be processed into four-fresh canned vegetable protein meat, which can be carried around, convenient to eat, and has high nutritional value.
7. The role in other food processing
Pepsin is used to hydrolyze the protein, and the insolubility of the protein in the isoelectric point region will disappear. The hydrolysate is added to the mixture of food and cakes to increase the volume of egg protein foaming. Soy protein can also be used as a foam stabilizer. After it is hydrolyzed with acid, it can be used as a foam stabilizer in soy sauce, spices similar to meat, and beer.
Soy protein isolate can also be used in food industries such as nutritious foods, fermented foods and condiments. Soy protein isolate has high viscosity, plasticity and elasticity. It can be used as a carrier for flavors, sugars and other complexes. Soy protein isolate, a nearly purified protein product, can also play a complementary role in amino acids in food processing and improve Food quality, increase nutrition, reduce serum cholesterol, and prevent heart and cerebrovascular diseases also have unique effects. It is a functional food additive with great market potential.