In addition, according to nutritional value can be divided into nutritional and non-nutritive sweeteners, such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, etc. are also natural sweeteners. Since these sugars not only impart sweetness to foods, but also are important nutrients that provide heat to the human body, they are usually regarded as food raw materials and are generally not controlled as food additives.
The scientific name is o-sulfonyl benzoyl. It is a synthetic sweetener widely used all over the world. It is cheap and has a high sweetness. Its sweetness is equivalent to 300 to 500 times that of sucrose. Due to the solubility of saccharin in water Low, so its sodium salt (sodium saccharin) is stipulated in the Chinese Additive Standard, which shows a bitter taste when the amount is large. It is generally believed that saccharin sodium is not decomposed or used in the body, and most of it is excreted in urine without damaging kidney function. Does not change the activity of the enzyme system in the body. Saccharin has been widely used throughout the world for decades, and no harmful effects on the human body have been found.
- Sodium cyclohexyl amine sulfonate (cyclamate) was listed as a “generally considered safe substance” in the United States in 1958 and was widely used, but in the 1970s it was reported that the product had carcinogenic effects on animals. In 1982, the FAO/ The WHO report proved non-carcinogenic. The United States FDA long-term experiment declared non-carcinogenic in 1984. However, the National Research Council of the United States and the National Academy of Sciences still believe that it has cancer-promoting and possibly carcinogenic effects. Therefore, it is still banned from food in the United States.
- Aspartame (aspartame) is 100 to 200 times sweeter than sucrose, and its taste is close to that of sucrose. It is a dipeptide derivative, which is decomposed into corresponding amino acids in the body after consumption. According to Chinese regulations, it can be used for foods other than canned foods, and the amount should be used in appropriate amounts according to production needs.
In addition, many dipeptide derivatives containing aspartic acid have also been discovered, such as alitame, which is also an amino acid sweetener, which is synthesized from natural raw materials and has high sweetness.
- Acesulfame Potassium
This product is stable to light and heat (225°C), has a long sweetness, and has a better taste than sodium saccharin. It is quickly eliminated from the urine after absorption, and does not accumulate in the body. It is used in combination with aspartame 1:1. There is obvious synergistic effect.
- Sugar alcohol sweeteners
Sugar alcohol sweeteners belong to a class of natural sweeteners, their sweetness is similar to that of sucrose, and they are mostly low-calorie sweeteners. There are many varieties, such as sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol and maltitol, some of which are found in natural foods, and most of them are obtained by hydrogenating the corresponding sugars. The precursors come from natural foods. Because sugar alcohol sweeteners have a low glycemic index and do not produce acid, they are mostly used as sweeteners for patients with diabetes and obesity and have the effect of preventing dental caries. Most of these substances have a certain degree of water absorption, and have certain effects on improving the rehydration of dehydrated food, controlling crystallization, and reducing water activity. However, due to the low absorption rate of sugar alcohols, especially xylitol, it has a certain ability to cause diarrhea when consumed in large quantities.
It is a strong sweetness component contained in stevia and a glycoside containing diterpene. The sweetness is about 300 times that of sucrose. However, the taste of stevioside is poor, with licorice flavor, and bitterness when the concentration is high. Therefore, it is often mixed with sucrose, fructose, glucose, etc., and combined with citric acid, malic acid, etc. to reduce the bitter taste or through fructosyltransferase or α- Glucosyltransferase makes it change its structure to correct its shortcomings. There have been a large number of toxicity experiments on it abroad, and none of them showed toxic effects. In countries where it has been consumed for a long time, such as Paraguay, the product has been used for 100 years, and Japan has been used for more than 15 years, and no adverse side effects have been reported.
The safe use of food additives is very important. Ideal food additives are beneficial and harmless substances. Food additives, especially chemically synthesized food additives, have a certain degree of toxicity, so the amount of use must be strictly controlled when using it. The toxicity of food additives refers to their ability to cause damage to the body. Toxicity is not only related to the chemical structure and physical and chemical properties of the substance itself, but also related to its effective concentration, time of action, route and location of contact, interaction of the substance, and the functional state of the body. Therefore, regardless of the toxicity and dosage of food additives, there is a problem of the relationship between the dosage and the effect on the human body, that is, only when the substance reaches a certain concentration or dosage level can it show its toxic effect.