3.1 Structural characteristics of textured soy protein
(1) The structure of the textured proteinn is granular, has a multiply fleshy tissue, and has excellent water retention and chewing feeling.
(2) It has been processed under short-term high temperature, high moisture and pressure conditions to eliminate many harmful substances contained in soybeans, such as trypsinin, urease, saponin, hemagglutinin, etc., and improve protein Absorption and digestion capacity. After heat treatment, the nutritional value of soybean starch has been significantly improved.
(3) Although the extruded protein has strong denaturation and the PID value of the product is about 10, the damage of essential amino acids is very slight (according to the measurement, the statistical loss is 5.5-33).
3.2 Characteristics of Soy Textured Protein
(1) The use of textured soy protein can not only increase the protein content of the product, reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol, prevent the tissue from being damaged by high temperature heating or mechanical action, and lose the touch of the meat, and it can also reduce the cost of the product. .
(2) The application of textured soy protein in meat products is mainly considering their economy and nutrition, followed by functionality. Economy mainly refers to the lower price of textured soy protein products, and it can replace a part of meat. It can reduce the cost of the product; nutrition refers to the addition of soy protein to meat products, which can increase the protein content of the product, reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol, and adapt to modern nutritional needs. Functionality refers to the use of soy protein Its emulsification, oil absorption, water absorption, gel and stickiness can improve the quality of meat products.
(3) Textured soy protein is suitable for meat products, simulated nutritious meat, box-type nutritious food and cooking foods of various shapes. When textured soy protein is added, it must be rehydrated and deodorized, that is, soak soybeans in warm water of about 50%. textured protein 30～60min (requires the time for determining the size of the visual block in the 12th issue of 2007). It can also be soaked in room temperature water for several hours, thoroughly rehydrated and rinsed with water for 1 to 2 times, and then dried. Large protein products must be twisted to the specified requirements.
(4) Textured soy protein is not only a substitute for meat in the processing of minced meat products, but also a necessary raw material. In addition, due to its good water absorption and oil absorption, it can reduce processing loss and greasy feeling. Adding appropriate amount of textured protein to foods such as pie, meat buns, dumplings, etc. can replace some chicken, beef, etc., without compromising the nutrition and palatability of the food. Some textured soy proteins are colored and processed into similar beef, chicken, and ham. Imitations such as bacon and fish have already gone to the market.