Textured vegetable protein (TVP)
Textured vegetable protein is also called textured soy protein, commonly known as vegetable protein or vegetarian meat. It is extracted from defatted soy flour by squeezing and extracting from defatted soy flour, and its by-product is soy oil. Vegetable protein is easy to cook, and its protein content is equivalent to real meat but without fat, which is good for health without losing the sense of deliciousness.
Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) was a mainstay of 1970s and 1980s vegetarian cooking, and it’s still commonly available at most natural foods stores. But the stuff has gotten less popular over the years as the quality of vegan meats has improved.
TVP was originally developed, not for the sake of pleasing vegans, but as a cheap way to extend hamburger and other ground meat products. But the stuff caught on in the vegetarian community during the 1970s because, seasoned appropriately, it could be made into dishes that were capable of fooling meat eaters.
As its name implies, TVP is essentially pure protein. The product is made by processing soybeans in a way that removes all fat and carbohydrates. Like tofu (another soy-based ingredient) TVP readily absorbs the flavors of any recipe it’s a part of, making it an extremely versatile cooking ingredient.
TVP is mainly extracted from soybeans, but can also be obtained from cottonseed, wheat and oats. It is a combination of protein. It can be extruded into various shapes (blocks, slices, blocks, grains and ribbons) and various sizes, and will expand when exposed to heat at the discharge port. The defatted thermoplastic protein can be heated to 150-200°C; and it is denatured into fibers, insoluble, porous, and can be soaked in liquid to absorb 3 times its own weight.
When the extruded protein mixture melts out of the machine, it will suddenly change into a fluffy and dry solid under a sudden drop in pressure. When 50% of the protein reaches dryness, the vegetable protein can absorb water at a ratio of 2:1, and 16% of the protein will be lost in the process, which is very close to real meat. The high-quality textured vegetable protein TVP can be combined with Meat is mixed in a ratio of 1:3 (TVP: meat) without reducing the quality of the final product. Sometimes it is necessary to add this kind of vegetarian meat to make up for the lack of meat; its main purpose is as a substitute for meat, at a price It is only one-third or less of real meat, and will not shrink or lose weight during cooking.
1. Are textured protein foods healthy?
There are many forms of TVP. Among them, the more common ones are granular, block, flake, filamentous, etc., and TVP has many uses. For example, it can be used in food and can be used in the production of sausages. The addition amount is Fifteen percent of the weight of the meat can replace part of the lean meat. If it is mixed with fatty meat, it can be crushed and then made into meatballs. The taste is even better than pure meatballs. You can also add soy soy protein when making dumpling fillings, which can not only replace lean meat, but also improve the flavor of dumplings. To improve nutrition, it can also be used to process all kinds of meat, and the taste is the same. It is also a gospel for vegetarians. It can also be used to make jerky. Not to mention the high nutritional value, it is convenient to eat, and the price not tall.
It can also be mixed with various spices and sugars to make children’s breakfast and inter-school meals. If added to the canned meat dishes, it can reduce the cost and increase the protein content. If the soy protein is heated After being soaked in water, it can be used with various seasonings. It is a good cold dish. It can be seen that the soy protein is not only a high nutritional value, but also an excellent health care product. People with diabetes are very friendly and can play a role in adjuvant therapy.
Using TVP to make various food ingredients can not only increase the protein content in the food, but also reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol in the food, and it can also reduce the cost of the producer.
2. What is the effect of textured protein?
The protein content in TVP is still very high. We can make it into a vegetarian meat product, which reduces the processing cost, increases the protein content in the product, and makes it have higher nutritional value. After soaking, different cooking methods such as stir-frying and deep-frying can also be carried out. The taste of the prepared food is still very good, and it is very popular among consumers.
TVP is currently also used in various fast foods in our country, and often replaces refined meat to improve the taste of dumplings. We can make tissue protein into dried meat, canned meat, preserves, breakfast and other foods. It is a nutritious product suitable for all ages and has become a high-protein food that our people love.
3. Textured tissue protein is very popular
The advantages of TVP are similar to lean meat, especially in terms of taste, and it is rich in soy protein, rich in nutrition, but the production cost is not high, so the price on the market is relatively low, and it is very popular.
Soy protein is rich in nutrition and high in protein content. The proportion of amino acids in the protein composition is reasonable. The protein digestion and absorption rate is very similar to meat, but it will not cause obesity, cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol and other diseases like meat-type diets. , So more and more people look down on it. Moreover, the world’s animal protein resources are currently in short supply. In countries with a grain-based diet, the protein intake is generally lower than the level required to maintain human health every day. Therefore, new protein sources are often needed to make up for this deficiency.
Soy protein can fully take on this task, which is the inevitable trend of food development in the future. There are many types of soy protein, such as deodorized soy flour, defatted soy flour, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, and soy textured protein. Foods made from textured soy protein taste good and chewy, so no matter what they are, they are very popular.
4. The nutritional value of textured vegetable protein and the applicable people
The nutritional value of soybeans is obvious to all, and it is an important part of the human body. And soybean is also one of the main crops in China. It has the characteristics of edible oil resources and edible protein resources, as well as high nutritional value. It is also rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and various vitamins.
Protein is a nutrient needed by humans, accounting for about 45-half of the total weight of human dry matter and about 70% of the total muscle. The main components of human cells, tissues, and organs are all protein. . Moreover, human metabolism, disease resistance, immunity, and genetic information are all closely related to protein. Without protein, there is no life.
But most of them have some shortcomings. They are more afraid of high temperature environment. Therefore, you should pay attention to the temperature of the environment when storing, and some people can not stand the smell of soybeans. Do not use boiling water for the consumption of soybean protein, because high temperature water will destroy soybean protein. The structure of soy milk reduces the nutritional value. Soybeans are easier to digest and absorb than milk. Milk will form large and hard lumps when it enters the stomach, but soy milk will form when it enters the stomach. Small flakes, soft and not hard, can be digested and absorbed quickly. For children, the use of soy protein can promote healthy growth and promote growth and development. For pregnant women and nursing mothers, it can help the development of the fetus and the baby. Promoting milk with breastfeeding mothers can prevent the occurrence of diseases for middle-aged and elderly people. It can be seen that the edible value of soy protein is still very high, and the range of consumption is very wide.
5. What are the effects of textured vegetable protein
TVP is rich in nutritional value and chewy, and foods made with TVP are tasty. Therefore, foods made with TVP have always been loved by customers. In the food industry, the use of TVP has unique advantages. Next, I will talk about it briefly for everyone.
5.1 TVP mixed with various spices and sugars can be made into a high-protein convenience food for school-age children to make breakfast and break meals;
5.2 Adding TVP to canned meat reduces the cost and increases the protein content;
5.3 After the TVP is soaked in hot water, it can be eaten with various seasonings, which is convenient and can increase appetite. It is a better cold dish;
5.4 TVP is not only high in nutritional value, but also an excellent health food, suitable for all ages. It is an auxiliary curative food for patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, animal cirrhosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hepatitis, nephritis, and obesity.
6. Which food processing can texture vegetable protein be applied to?
TVP is a substance extracted from soybeans and is mainly used in food processing. Adding an appropriate amount of TVP to food cannot increase the taste, and at the same time make the food richer in nutrients, so that more people like it, thereby increasing the sales of the food. In addition, for food processing plants, textured vegetable protein can also be substituted for meat to reduce production costs. Therefore, TVP is widely used in food processing. So, which foods can be added to TVP? Next, I will briefly introduce this problem.
6.1 TVP has good water absorption and oil retention. When added to meat products, it can increase the color, aroma, taste, and protein content of meat products, and can promote the integrity of particles and improve the yield. Therefore, it is an ideal meat Product additives can be added to meat products to reduce the amount of lean meat added.
6.2 TVP has the characteristics of imitating meat structure and can be made into convenience foods with various flavors. Silky and flaky protein products can be directly used to make vegetarian imitation meat foods. Blocks and small particles can be used to make various fillings. Food not only satisfies the senses, but also provides a source of protein. It can be eaten after soaking in hot water, and can be used as breakfast and lunch for school-age children
6.3 TVP undergoes hydration during production, has uniform tissue characteristics and specific tissue structure, has good chewiness and meat texture, and is suitable for frying, frying, cooking, frying, soup, filling, and cold salad. In minced meat or other meat products, add 25-50% tissue protein and mix with various seasonings to make dishes that have the taste of meat. Therefore, it can be used to partially replace meat. Soy tissue protein is a real high-quality and cheap food .
6.4 TVP has a good granular structure. After processing, it can be processed into various flavors of dried meat, preserves, vegetarian foods, etc. During the process of processing tissue protein, different flavors of flavoring agents can be added to leisure foods. The snack foods with different flavors, rich nutrition and very good taste are prepared.
6.5 TVP is not only high in nutritional value, but also an excellent health food, suitable for all ages. It is an auxiliary curative food for patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hepatitis, nephritis, and obesity.
7. The application of textured vegetable protein in the food industry
7.1 Application in meat products: TVP has good water absorption and oil retention. When added to meat products, it can increase the color, aroma, taste, and protein content of meat products, and can promote the integrity of particles and improve the yield rate. Therefore, it is an ideal meat product additive, and it can be added to meat products to reduce the amount of lean meat added. For example, in the meat sausage, adding TVP within 15% of the meat weight can maintain the appearance and quality of the product; in the meatballs, adding TVP within 20% of the meat weight, its taste and taste are better than pure meatballs; in pie Adding TVP within 30% of the meat weight to the dumpling filling can improve the quality and flavor, which not only reduces the production cost, but also increases the protein content.
7.2 Application in convenience foods: TVP has the characteristics of imitating meat texture, and can be made into convenience foods with various flavors. Silky and flaky protein products are directly used to make vegetarian meat-like foods, in block and small granular shapes. Various stuffing foods can be made, which not only satisfies the senses, but also provides a high-quality protein source. It can be eaten after soaking in hot water, and can be used as breakfast and lunch for school-age children.
7.3 Application in dishes: TVP undergoes hydration in production, has uniform tissue characteristics and specific tissue structure, has good chewiness and meat texture, and is suitable for frying, frying, cooking, frying, soup, filling, It can be cold. In minced meat or other meat products, add 25-50% tissue protein and mix with various seasonings to make dishes that have the taste of meat. Therefore, it can be used to partially replace meat. Textured vegetable protein is a real high-quality and cheap food .
7.4 Application in leisure food: the tissue protein has a good granular structure. After processing, it can be made into various flavors of dried meat, preserves, vegetarian food, etc. During the process of processing the tissue protein, different flavors can be seasoned. Adding the agent to leisure foods can produce leisure foods with different flavors, rich nutrition and excellent taste.
7.5 Application in nutritional health food: TVP is not only high in nutritional value, but also an excellent health food, suitable for all ages. It is an auxiliary curative food for patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hepatitis, nephritis, and obesity.
8. The development of “alternative meat” is the general trend
According to the release of “China Plant Meat Market Insights”, the global meat market is expected to reach 1.4 trillion US dollars in 10 years, and the market share of “alternative meat (textured vegetable protein)” will be less than 1% from the current market. Increase to 10%, which is more than one trillion yuan.
According to experts, with changes in the global climate and ecological environment, as well as the continuous growth of the population, we are facing the impact of some unnutritious, unhealthy, and unsafe meat products. Therefore, the development of “alternative meat” is the general trend. In fact, in recent years, scientists around the world are also working hard to find and research new alternatives, eliminate the supply crisis of meat food, and finally realize the sustainable development of alternative meat.
Experts who have been engaged in food protein structure and function research for many years share with us. Currently, alternative meat mainly includes textured vegetable protein meat and cell culture meat. In terms of development and application, the texture vegetable protein meat technology is relatively mature. The raw material of vegetable protein meat such as silk-drawn protein, textured protein and granular protein are produced on the basis of extruder. The technology is very mature. It has been commercialized as early as more than 20 years ago. It was originally used as raw material for meat and poultry products such as beef, pork, and chicken. Part of the replacement is used in meat and poultry products. However, cell culture meat is currently unable to be marketed in the short term due to issues such as laws and regulations, technology, and cost.
Experts revealed that the differences between different parts and different types of meat products are mainly manifested in fiber structure, fat content, etc. It is very difficult to realistically simulate different parts or different types of meat products. At present, the only relatively successful product in the development of plant meat is hamburger products.
Why are these products more successful? Because the minced meat products have a relatively strong flavor, and there are a lot of other vegetables, condiments and grains in the burger, which are mixed and eaten, so that consumers have a low degree of recognition of the color, flavor and texture of the meat patties.
So far, there has been no successful commercial development of whole meat, let alone the problem of different parts of meat. First of all, the diversity of meat products makes products have different characteristics, that is to say, the meat quality, appearance (such as fiber shape), water retention, and flavor of the product are all very important influencing factors.
“Vegetable protein meat is vegan plant meat. Because it is made of reorganized and shaped like structured protein, it is essentially a reorganized food, that is, the nutritional value of the finished food can be customized on demand, and it is a good nutrition. And a carrier of healthy food.” Experts say that as the vegetarian meat industry develops more mature and stable, the vegetarian meat processing technology, including raw protein tissue technology, molding technology, and flavor enhancement technology, has greatly improved. The products are bound to be popular and have broad development prospects.
9. “Alternative meat” rarely has the conditions to produce hazards
Plant protein is widely regarded as an important ingredient in the next generation of meat substitute products. So, does vegetable protein meat produce harmful substances and endanger food safety?
According to experts, the vegetable protein used in vegetable protein meat is mainly organized protein and various types of vegetable protein for filling or other purposes. Taking soybean protein as an example, the normal extrusion processing, heat treatment, enzyme treatment and structural design of soybean protein are relatively mild. For example, even the extrusion processing, although the temperature is relatively high, the time is very short, which may induce Certain Maillard reaction or oxidation reaction, but the time is short, and the accumulation of potentially harmful products is limited.
“Other treatment methods such as enzymatic digestion treatment will hardly produce harmful substances. Unless it is excessive heat treatment in the later period, or very long storage, leading to more significant Maillard reaction and oxidation reaction, etc. Therefore, it is said that soybeans in food The normal industrial processing of protein has few conditions for producing harmful substances.” How to develop and utilize new protein resources has become an important issue, especially the application of food processing technology to plant-derived proteins.
“At present, to imitate different types of animal meat in different parts, these surrounding tissues also need to be further developed and mature. For example, if you eat snowflake beef, snowflake is adipose tissue.” However, due to many factors that need to be considered, it is completely realized in actual development and production. Simulating the taste of a particular product is currently difficult to achieve.
10. The application of vegetable protein meat extraction still needs to solve many problems
In many articles, some scholars have pointed out that in the process of eating vegetable protein meat, there is often a beany flavor or the problem of unbalanced flavor of soybean food. For artificial meat or vegetarian meat, what special effects are there to remove the beany flavor and make the product more authentic?
“This is a technical difficulty in the research and development process of vegetarian meat products, and there is still no good solution.” Zhou Jingwen said, after all, it is vegan vegetable protein meat. The main raw material of vegetable protein, no matter what kind of protein, More or less have their own flavor. Products made of soy protein will have a soy flavor, whether it is flavored or spiced, chewing for a long time, it will have the flavor of soy products.
According to experts, real meat has a very good fibrous structure, so the main purpose of vegetable protein processing is to make vegetable protein form a structure similar to animal muscle tissue through physical processing, and its texture, shape, and flavor and taste There is still a long way to go between realism and real meat. At present, various research institutions and companies are also studying how to further realise from the level of raw materials.
“Cell culture meat should in principle be a technical approach that is closer to real meat, but at present this technology is still at the level of cultivating animal cells and has not yet effectively formed muscle tissue.” Experts said, in addition, we know that breeding chickens and walking on the ground The texture and taste of chickens are very different. This is not the relationship between cultivation and breeding, but only the difference caused by sports. At present, cultured meat has only completed the level of cell culture, has not yet entered the level of muscle tissue, and has not yet reached the level of exercise or not. All these issues need to be further studied.