Isolated Soy Protein
Abstract: With the continuous development of China’s economic level, people’s living standards are also rising. People are not only satisfied with the solution to the problem of food and clothing, but also begin to pay attention to the balance of nutrition and the healthy development of the body. In addition to daily exercise, there is another way to choose food, eat some healthy and nutritious food.
Soy protein isolate is a kind of food additive of full-price protein. It is produced with low-temperature desolubilized soybean meal as the raw material. The protein content in it is also very high, reaching more than 90%, and it contains humans. The amino acids needed by the body have high nutritional value and contain no cholesterol. For people who do not eat meat, this is a good news. It can be used as a substitute for protein in animal meat, and not all plant proteins can be substituted. of. So its edible value is still very high.
It can increase the taste of food very well, so it is also very popular in the food industry. It has good emulsification. Its surface is an active agent, which can reduce the surface tension of water and oil, and it can also reduce water and air. When the surface tension of the food is roasted, or when the frozen food and soup are made, it can be added to stabilize the state. It is widely used in emulsified meat products and aquatic surimi products. And food-grade soy protein isolate has good conjunctival properties. It can play a role in preventing the odor of ingredients from dissipating. Eating more of this kind of food is beneficial to people’s health. You should also pay attention to the combination of healthy ingredients in daily use, so that you can have a healthy body.
Soy protein isolate is often used as an additive in meat products, dairy products, and noodle products. Its addition can improve the taste of food. The reason why soy protein isolate has so many uses is inseparable from its good performance.
Keywords: soy protein, soy protein isolate, food, nutrition, health, amino acid
1. The functional characteristics of soy protein isolate
Soy protein isolate is a surfactant, which can reduce the surface tension of water and oil as well as the surface tension of water and air. Easily form a stable emulsion. In the production of grilled food, frozen food and soup food, adding soybean protein isolate as emulsifier can make the product state stable.
Soy protein isolate contains many polar groups along its peptide chain backbone, so it has water absorption, water retention and swelling properties. The water absorption of protein isolate is much stronger than concentrated protein, and it is almost unaffected by temperature. It also has the ability to retain water during processing. The highest water retention capacity is 14g water/g protein.
1.3 Oil absorption:
When protein isolate is added to meat products, it can form emulsion and gel matrix to prevent fat from moving to the surface, thus it plays a role in promoting fat absorption or fat binding. It can reduce the loss of fat and juice during meat processing and help maintain The appearance is stable, and the oil absorption rate of the separated protein is 154%.
1.4 Gel properties:
It enables the protein isolate to have higher viscosity, plasticity and elasticity. It can be used as a carrier for water, as well as a carrier for flavors, sugars and other complexes, which is extremely beneficial to food processing.
Among soy protein, protein isolate has the best foaming performance. The foaming performance of soy protein can give food a loose structure and good taste.
After the meat is chopped, it is coated on the fiber surface with a mixture of protein isolate and egg protein to form a film, which is easy to dry, can prevent odor loss, is conducive to the rehydration process, and provides a reasonable structure for the rehydration product.
2. Application of soy protein isolate in food
2.1 Dairy products:
Soy protein isolate can be used in the production of dairy products, such as formula milk powder and liquid milk. It can improve the combination of protein content and milk nutrition and flavor, and form complementary advantages in amino acid content, ratio and flavor. Soy protein isolate has dispersibility, solubility, stability and emulsification. The protein content is more than 90%, and it does not contain lactose. It can avoid lactose uncomfortable reaction. It does not contain cholesterol. It is low calorie, high nutrition, Safe and convenient auxiliary materials for dairy products processing. Soy protein isolate is used to replace milk powder, non-dairy beverages and various forms of milk products. It has comprehensive nutrition and does not contain cholesterol. It is a food substitute for milk.
Soy protein isolate is used in the production of ice cream instead of skimmed milk powder, which can improve the emulsification properties of ice cream, delay the crystallization of lactose, and prevent the phenomenon of “sanding”. Researchers use soybean protein isolate to make soy protein ice cream. The protein can be evenly distributed in the entire system, increasing the protein content and improving its nutritional value. The ice cream has a complete texture, no beany, no roughness, and puffing rate. Good, and without any synthetic additives, suitable for people of all ages. Use soybean protein isolate as a raw material to develop functional beverages and strengthen essential nutrients. They can be presented to consumer groups in full-fat or defatted form, with original flavor or added flavor, and different textures. The process can be directly processed using existing dairy product processing equipment.
2.2 Meat products:
Soy protein isolate is used as a functional additive or non-functional filler in the processing of meat products. It can improve the quality of meat, retain water and fat, prevent segregation of gravy, increase elasticity, and improve taste. The soy protein isolate product obtained through modification with both gelling and solubility is used to replace imported protein, which is used as a special protein isolate for meat product injection in the production of meat products, which can increase the yield of meat products and reduce the production cost of meat products. . Adding 2% soy protein isolate to sausages can increase the weight by 10%, and the taste and flavor are improved to varying degrees. Adding soy protein isolate to higher-grade meat products not only improves the texture and flavor of meat products, but also increases the protein content and strengthens vitamins.
2.3 Fish products:
Japan and other countries use protein isolates in fish products to increase product supply. In addition, they also produce powder and granular products. The main products are defatted soybean powder, low-temperature soybean powder, full-fat soybean powder, and lecithin-added soybeans. Powder, protein concentrate, protein isolate, fibrin, conformation protein, etc.
2.4 Baked food and pasta food:
Soy protein isolate is used in bakery and pasta foods to increase the strength of gluten, improve the water absorption of the dough during processing, and improve the flavor and nutritional content of the product. In addition, soy protein isolate can increase bread nutrition, increase water absorption, increase biscuit crispness, improve bread crust color, prevent bread aging, extend shelf life, improve cake foaming, water absorption, and make cake texture swell Loose, fine honeycomb, good color and taste, not easy to dry and hard, anti-aging.
2.5 Protein drinks:
Used in beverages to increase the protein content of beverages. At present, there are more than 12,000 varieties of soy protein added to food and beverages in the United States. American consumers have gradually accepted soybeans, and more and more Americans like the flavor and taste of soybean beverages. In addition, the use of soy protein to produce protein beverages such as soy protein milk, coffee bean milk, soy cheese, fruit juice soy milk, etc., not only has high nutritional value, but also has good quality and sweet taste.
2.6 Canned food:
Soy protein, also known as vegetarian meat, is a high-protein nutritious food. It can be processed into four-fresh canned vegetable protein meat, which can be carried around, convenient to eat, and has high nutritional value.
2.7 Other food processing:
Pepsin is used to hydrolyze the protein, and the insolubility of the protein in the isoelectric point region will disappear. The hydrolysate is added to the mixture of food and cakes to increase the volume of egg protein foaming. Soy protein can also be used as a foam stabilizer. After it is hydrolyzed with acid, it can be used as a foam stabilizer in soy sauce, spices similar to meat, and beer.
Soy protein isolate can also be used in food industries such as nutritious foods, fermented foods and condiments. Soy protein isolate has high viscosity, plasticity and elasticity. It can be used as a carrier for flavors, sugars and other complexes. Soy protein isolate, a nearly purified protein product, can also play a complementary role in amino acids in food processing and improve Food quality, increase nutrition, reduce serum cholesterol, and prevent heart and cerebrovascular diseases also have unique effects. It is a functional food additive with great market potential.
3. Benefits and functions of soy protein isolate
3.1 With a low-fat diet, it helps lower cholesterol
Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of adults. The most direct cause is excessive intake of cholesterol in the diet. Studies have found that consuming soy protein isolate can reduce the concentration of cholesterol in the serum, increase good cholesterol, and inhibit the oxidation of bad cholesterol. , To remove junk fat on the blood vessel wall and improve blood vessel health. In 1999, the U.S. FDA issued an authoritative health statement: Eating low-saturated fat and low-cholesterol foods containing 25 grams of soy protein every day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The Chinese residents’ dietary and nutrition guidelines also specifically propose that we should pay attention to the intake of soybeans in our daily diet. People who already have cardiovascular disease or those who are trending should increase the intake of soy protein isolate in their diets and reduce the intake of animal protein.
3.2 Consistently eating, it helps to reduce the risk of certain cancers
Although a large number of people die from cardiovascular disease, people in general are more afraid of cancer. Soy protein can reduce the risk of certain cancers. Studies have shown that eating soy protein food can reduce the incidence of breast cancer in women by 20%, reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in men by 35%, and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer by 30%. It also has a certain inhibitory effect on the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
3.3 With unique sports nutrition value, it is a healthy food for athletes and dieters
Soy protein can help strengthen and maintain muscle mass, and can restore and relieve muscle soreness, redness and fatigue caused by exercise. It is a sports nutrition that relieves muscle soreness and fatigue, and helps to quickly recover physical strength. Today, obesity has increasingly become a concern of modern people. Compared with animal protein, soy protein can promote the secretion of glucagon and accelerate the use of stored fat in the body to provide energy. It is a very good healthy weight loss nutrition.
3.4 Promote calcium absorption and utilization, improve bone health
Studies have found that large amounts of animal protein will increase the excretion of calcium by the kidneys. In a study of 755 Japanese men and women, it was found that there is a significant proportional relationship between the amount of calcium excretion and the intake of animal protein, but intake Soy protein does not have such a situation. The conclusion is that compared with animal protein, soy protein does not increase calcium excretion, but promotes calcium absorption and utilization, prevents osteoporosis, improves bone density, and maintains bone health.
3.5 Transport nutrients, balance endocrine
Protein is the carrier and receptor of various nutrients such as calcium, iron and zinc, and can help the absorption and utilization of these nutrients. It can also enhance immunity and promote growth. Soy protein isolate is also beneficial to alleviate the number of hot flashes and the degree of reaction during menopause, and calm emotions.
4. The nutritional value of soy protein isolate
High protein: Whether for vegetarians or ordinary people, soy protein isolate powder is the perfect high-quality protein supplement.
Low-fat: For weight loss people who need a low-calorie diet, replacing part of the protein in the diet with soy protein not only reduces the intake of cholesterol and saturated fat, but also achieves a balanced nutritional intake.
Increase calcium: Soy protein can prevent urinary calcium loss, promote bone health, and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
Lower cholesterol: Studies have shown that taking 25g of soy protein daily can effectively reduce the content of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the human blood, thereby reducing the risk of heart disease.
No uncomfortable reaction: Soy protein isolate powder removes the original nutritional inhibitor trypsin inhibitor in soy, so you don’t need to have indigestion, flatulence and other uncomfortable reactions.
5. Advantages of soy protein isolate
Compared with animal-derived protein, another significant advantage of soy protein isolate is low fat and zero cholesterol, which makes it more suitable for the elderly and specific consumer groups with the aforementioned health concerns. For vegetarians, protein powder with soy protein isolate as the main raw material is undoubtedly the best choice. In addition, the digestion and absorption rate of soy protein isolate is as high as 90%, making it especially suitable for people who are physically weak, such as those who recover after surgery, the elderly, infants and young children.
It is worth mentioning that in recent years, the use of soy protein isolate as a base material instead of whey powder as a formula powder for infants and young children has also continued to introduce new trends. In addition to nutrient richness, lactose-free and hypoallergenic properties are also important reasons why it is favored by manufacturers.
Because soy protein isolate does not contain lactose, it is safe for infants with galactosemia or lack of lactase; at the same time, lactose-free formula can also help infants recover from diarrhea caused by transient lactase deficiency. Regarding allergenicity, foreign researchers have compared healthy infants fed breast milk, milk formula or soy protein-based formula milk powder, and found that 0.5% of infants fed soy protein-based formula milk powder had allergic reactions, while those who were fed milk powder had allergic reactions. The base formula milk powder accounted for 1.8%.
6. Amino acids in soy protein
Function: Soy protein breaks down in your digestive system into amino acids that are absorbed into your bloodstream and travel throughout your body. In the process, some of these amino acids combine with others to form various types of protein that provide structure to your organs and tissues and play roles in various body processes. Some amino acids in soy protein also function as hormones, enzymes and other active substances in the body. As a last resort, your body can also use protein to produce energy when carbohydrates and fats are unavailable.
7. Buy high-quality soy protein isolate
Soybeans are divided into genetically modified soybeans and non-transgenic soybeans. When selecting raw materials, China Foodstuff & Protein Group Co., Ltd. selects non-GM soybeans as raw materials to produce high-quality non-GM soybean protein isolates. Dalian National Foodstuffs Co., Ltd. is an enterprise that develops and produces soybean protein, with more than 20 years of experience. In terms of technology research and development, it adopts advanced production technology from the United States and Japan to provide various high-quality soy protein products, and has a strong product supply capacity with an annual production capacity of more than 15,000 tons.