Characterization and application analysis of tissue vegetable proteins
As one of the important inventions in the food industry, plant tissue protein is a fibrous plant protein with a texture similar to muscle fibers formed by the production and processing of plant protein by a special process.
Plant tissue proteins are mainly classified according to their structural organization, including thick silk type, thin silk type, soft silk type, hard silk type, smooth silk, astringent silk, etc. According to different silk type structures and the tensile strength of silk, there are many The combination of plant tissue protein can be used to make ham, meat filling, beef jerky and canned food. Its own advantages are embodied in: giving meat texture to products; replacing meat products and reducing costs, improving their cost-effectiveness; good taste improvement effect; juice outflow inhibition effect; heat shrinkage inhibition effect; oil outflow inhibition effect; fiber formation effect; tissue formation synergistic effects, etc. The food made from it is basically no different from ordinary meat food in taste. However, the price of plant tissue protein is only 1/5 of that of lean pork, and the protein content is 2-3 times that of fish, meat and eggs.
Plant tissue protein properties
Plant tissue protein is a structural protein with muscle fibers, with good chewiness and rich nutritional value. Its protein content is about 60%-90%, which is more than 3 times that of pork, more than 4 times that of eggs, and 16 times that of milk. more than twice, and the product appearance is stable and good, and does not contain cholesterol.
1.1 Water absorption
The water absorption of plant tissue protein, also known as rehydration, refers to its ability to absorb water when immersed in water, which is closely related to the rehydration temperature, the character and size of plant tissue protein. The water absorption rate refers to the ratio of the weight after rehydration to the dry weight of the sample. The rehydration temperature is generally 30-50°C, and the rehydration time is 10-20min. The rehydration soaks until the surface fully absorbs water and there is no hard block inside. The water absorption rate is generally in the range of 250%-350%, that is, the weight of 1kg of plant tissue protein after rehydration is about 2.5-3.5kg.
1.2 Tissue fibers
Plant tissue protein has a structure similar to muscle fiber, and the fiber stripes are clear and delicate, the surface is smooth, and the inner fiber filaments are neat. Take a certain amount of vegetable drawing protein (dry basis), remove it after rehydration, drain it, and put it into a shredding machine to make filaments. According to different application fields, it can be disassembled into different lengths and thicknesses of shredded fibers, and the disassembly time is generally 30-60s.
1.3 Water retention
Water retention refers to the ability of plant tissue proteins to retain water during processing, and water retention is related to pH, ionic strength, and temperature. When the pH is greater than 4, the water retention increases with the increase of pH. Take a certain amount of plant tissue protein to rehydrate and mix it with the seasoning evenly, place it in a pre-weighed centrifuge tube, and gradually add water until the sample is slurried and anhydrous. Before the precipitation, weigh and put it into a centrifuge (3000r/m) for 5 minutes, pour out the supernatant and weigh, the part of the added liquid retained by the plant tissue protein is water retention, expressed in g/100g, and the water retention is generally in 200-300 range.
Emulsifying property refers to the ability of the plant tissue protein after silk formation to be mixed with water and oil to absorb it. After rehydrating 10g of the sample, remove the silk and put it into the chopper, chop and mix at a low speed, and continuously add 50ml of soybean oil, chop and mix. After 3 minutes, put it into a centrifuge at 500 r/min for 5 minutes, and measure the amount of oil separated. The more water is separated, the worse the emulsification, and the emulsification is generally 30-50ml.
Application of plant tissue protein
2.1 Application in sausage, ham, sausage
Because plant tissue protein has filamentation, good water and oil absorption, and its fiber filaments have strong tensile force and good elasticity, it can be used in meat products to reduce the loss of water and the overflow of fat during the processing of meat products, and the product is not greasy. , which increases the elasticity and meatiness of the product, increases the protein content of the product, and improves the quality. It can replace 5%-25% of lean meat in the production of sausages, hams, sausages and other meat products.
2.2 Application of plant tissue protein in vegetarian meat floss
Using plant tissue protein as the main raw material to make meat floss, first rehydrate the plant tissue protein, add soy sauce, spices, salt and other seasonings, cook for 20 minutes, remove it and drain it, put it in a frying machine, and then add pea powder and other other Stir fry the ingredients until fluffy. Because the powder particles and meat fibers are adsorbed together, their properties are basically similar to those before adding powder.
2.3 Application in quick-frozen food
Plant tissue protein can enhance the elasticity and taste of meatballs. It can be applied to chicken balls, fish balls, and shrimp balls to reduce the amount of meat added. It can be processed with other accessories into a high-protein, low-fat, low-cholesterol food. Product loss during processing. For example, in the application of fish balls, the pretreated plant tissue protein is made into silk, then mixed with spices, etc. evenly, marinated for 30 minutes, added to a beater, added with surimi, egg white and other high-speed beating until the meat is uniform, and then formed, Cook, cool and pack.
2.4 Application in stuffing food
The plant tissue protein can be fused with the muscle fibers of the meat, which helps the stuffing to stick together, increase the water holding capacity, increase the taste and nutrition, and reduce the production cost. For example, in the dumpling filling, first pre-treat the plant tissue protein and then shred it, mix it with soy sauce, salt, and spices evenly, then leave it for 30 minutes, mix it with the meat filling, and add vegetables, fat and other seasonings to mix the filling.
2.5 Application in leisure and convenience food
The plant tissue protein is used in casual convenience foods, and can be made into convenience foods with chicken, beef, seafood and other flavors, which not only satisfy people’s senses, but also provide high-quality protein sources. For example, it can be directly processed into beef granules, sweet and sour pork, spicy meat skewers, and used in instant noodle seasoning packets.
2.6 Application in sauces and dishes
After the rehydration treatment of plant tissue protein, it can be used in various sauces, such as beef sauce, seafood sauce, etc., which can improve the texture and taste of sauces, increase adhesion, improve nutritional value and reduce costs. With various seasonings, it can be used to make various cold dishes and vegetarian assorted dishes, and it can also be combined with meat.