Meat flavor base is a technology that utilizes Maillard reaction to produce meat flavor. Research began in my country in the 1980s. Meat flavor base material has low cost, good stability, convenient use and strong and vivid smell, and has a broad market in the food field. It can be used in instant seasonings, meat products and condiments, etc. Among meat flavor base materials, chicken and beef flavor base materials are currently used more frequently, and lamb flavor base materials are relatively few.
In 2014, Ningxia University in China conducted a systematic study on the mutton flavor base material, using soybean separation proteolytic solution as the basic raw material, adding various amino acids and oxidized lamb fat, and finally preparing a lamb flavor base material that meets the popular taste.
Soy protein isolate has a high protein content. After protease hydrolysis, amino acids needed for Maillard reaction to produce meaty substances are obtained, and then amino acids and reducing sugars that need to be supplemented are added for Maillard reaction to finally obtain lamb flavor substances. The specific test results are as follows:
Using alkaline protease and flavor protease as tool enzymes for enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolate, the final determination of the protein content of soy protein isolate was 84.22%. Apply the corresponding surface method to optimize the optimal reaction conditions for the two enzymes: the addition amount of alkaline protease enzyme is 4%, the substrate concentration is 5%, the temperature is 500C, pH=11, the reaction time is 5h, and the maximum degree of hydrolysis obtained after optimization is 18.36% The reaction conditions of the flavor protease are as follows: the amount of enzyme added is 3%, the substrate concentration is 4%, the temperature is 55℃, pH=6, the reaction time is 5h, and the maximum degree of hydrolysis obtained after optimization is 14.21%. The degree of hydrolysis of soy protein isolate can be increased to 38.67% by using the secondary enzyme method.
The optimal formula of Maillard reaction materials and reaction conditions is: temperature 105℃, time 50min, pH=6, soybean separation proteolysis solution 40mL, cysteine 1.59, thioine 0.49, glycine 0.5g, arginine 0.6g, alanine 0.5g, proline 1g, aspartic acid 2g, glutamic acid 2g and glucose 3g. The mutton flavor base liquid obtained under these conditions is yellow, clear and transparent, with strong aroma and long-lasting aroma.
The oxidation conditions of sheep fat are: reaction time 50min, reaction temperature 115℃, stirring speed 250r/min, single factor experiment confirmed that the addition amount of sheep fat oxide is 0.4g.
With the continuous in-depth research on the nutritional value and functional properties of soy protein isolate, it will be more widely used in the processing of mutton and other meat products. In the specific application process, the product characteristics, process requirements, formula design and economic benefits of various meat products should be fully considered to give full play to the role of soybean protein isolate.